The General vs. the President: MacArthur and Truman at the Brink of Nuclear War

⊑ Read Format Kindle [ ᥡ The General vs. the President: MacArthur and Truman at the Brink of Nuclear War ] For Free ⊰ Ebook Author H W Brands ⋌ ⊑ Read Format Kindle [ ᥡ The General vs. the President: MacArthur and Truman at the Brink of Nuclear War ] For Free ⊰ Ebook Author H W Brands ⋌ The General vs the PresidentPROLOGUEDecember 1950Clement Attlee didnt like appearing flustered The British prime ministers predecessor, Winston Churchill, was the one who indulged in dramatics the speeches about blood, sweat and tears finest hours Iron Curtains Attlee had evicted Churchill from 10Downing Street at the end of World WarII in no small part because the British people wanted less drama and predictability Yet the sudden news from America had even Attlee sweating The House of Commons was debating the optimal course of British foreign policy when the BBC brought word that Harry Truman was brandishing the atom bomb against China This itself horrified the British lawmakers The American president was the only person in history who had ordered the use of the monstrous weapon, and a man who had atom bombed Japan might, without additional scruple, do the same to China But there was a crucial new element, these five years after Hiroshima and Nagasaki, that made the prospect still appalling The Russians had the bomb, too, and were Chinas allies A nuclear war in 1950 would not be one sided And there was something else, something that pushed the alarm level in Britain far past that of any previous Cold War crisis By Trumans own statement, the decision on use of the atom bomb rested with the American field commander in Korea, Douglas MacArthur Attlee and many others in Britain could think of no one frightening than MacArthur to have control of the bomb MacArthur was brilliant, braveand imaginativeeven his critics granted that But the general had isolated himself so long in Asia, and surrounded himself with such sycophants, that he had lost all perspective He suffered from an extreme version of the theater commanders habit of thinking his own region the pivot of any conflict During World WarII MacArthur had behaved as though fascism would triumph or be defeated according to the outcome of battle in the Pacific in the Cold War he contended that communism would win or lose depending on what happened in Asia He had chafed at the communist victory in Chinas civil war, now a year past The outbreak of fighting in Korea five months ago had given him his chance to engage the communists, and the sudden entry of China into the conflict, just a week ago, had raised the stakes dramatically MacArthur seemed to relish the opportunity to smash the communists, using whatever weapons were available And now Truman was making the ultimate weapon available The House of Commons burst into an uproar on hearing the word from Washington Members of Attlees Labour party, already convinced that the Americans were reckless and MacArthur was a maniac, threatened a mutiny against their prime minister for his support of the American led effort in Korea To quell the uprising, Attlee announced that he would travel to America He implied that he would talk sense and restraint into Truman But he knew, and they knew, that this was than he could guarantee The mutiny hung fire, stemmed for the moment yet hardly vanquished Britains alarm was broadly shared None of the countries that had supported the United States in the defense of South Korea had bargained on the fighting there triggering World WarIII The French distrusted MacArthur even than the British did, and made no secret of the fact The French National Assembly called for immediate negotiations to defuse the crisis in Korea French premier Ren Pleven hastened to London to meet Attlee before the British prime minister left for Washington, and to lend his voice to those insisting that the Americans refrain from rash moves Fear of the bomb united rightist and leftist parties in Italy, where protesters branded Truman a war criminal West German officials, on the front line of the Cold War in Europe, refused to comment publicly but privately said Americas use of the bomb against China would almost certainly compel a Russian response, probably againstthem Indias government, which earlier had conveyed a warning from Beijing that the Chinese would enter the Korean conflict if MacArthur insisted on sending U.S troops to the Korean Chinese bordera warning MacArthur had airily dismissednow predicted that a resort to greater force would provoke a cataclysm Pope Pius XII urged Catholics to pray that the world might be spared Americans shuddered as well Is it World WarIII asked the New York Times The paper didnt say yes, but it couldnt say no New Yorkers flooded the civil defense offices of the city and state with demands to know where they should seek refuge when the Russian bombs began falling The state director of civil defense tried to calm things but only made them worse when he said his office was operating on the basis that an atomic or other attack could take place at any time The response in other cities and states was much the same Members of Congress displayed caution about criticizing the president for standing up to the communists none wanted to get into the crosshairs of Joseph McCarthy, at the peak of his red baiting power But several took pains to assert that the pertinent legislation gave authority over the use of the bomb to the president alone, not to any general Nonpoliticians were less leery Clergy and educators implored Truman to refrain from the terrible step he seemed to be contemplating Frederick Nolde, speaking for the World Council of Churches, declared, We would veritably be playing into the hands of those who want to pin upon us the tangible responsibility for starting a world war.If the world was alarmed, Harry Truman was livid And he blamed Douglas MacArthur for getting him into this mess In his five years as president, Truman had tolerated repeated slights and affronts from MacArthur the generals habit of making pronouncements on matters beyond his military responsibilities, his failure to return to America to brief the government on the U.S occupation of Japan, his campaigning for president in 1948 without bothering to resign his command Truman had suppressed his anger, lest a public row between the president and the general threaten the precarious stability of the Far East When MacArthur had refused to travel than half a day from his headquarters in Tokyo to discuss the war in Korea, Truman had undertaken the longjourney to Wake Island There he heard the general state with utter selfassurance that the Chinese would never dare to enter the Korean fighting If they did, they would be obliterated A month later the Chinese entered the war And they proceeded to manhandle MacArthurs army Truman was stunned and outraged How could MacArthur not have seen this coming Had his arrogance simply blinded him MacArthurs horrendous misjudgment had put Truman in an impossible position Since 1945 the president had been walking a knife edge of decision between appeasement and war between yielding to communist pressure and tipping the planet into a new world conflict In 1946 a stern warning had sufficed to keep the Kremlin from grabbing Iran In 1947 a stronger dose of American power, in the form of military aid to Greece and Turkey, had preserved the Balkans from a communist takeover A massive airlift in 1948 had kept Berlin free The North Atlantic Treaty of 1949 made clear to Moscow that an attack on any of Americas allies would be met with the full force of Americas arsenal Billions of dollars of Marshall Plan money continued to pour into Europe to bolster democracy there The North Korean attack on South Korea in June1950 proved that the communists never rested Truman had responded with measured force, enough to secure South Korea yet not so much as to bring the Soviets into the conflict But then MacArthurs recklessness had provoked the Chinese to enter the fight The Soviets, linked to the Chinese by a military pact, and as opportunistic as ever, wouldnt miss a chance to jump the United States where Americas alliances were most vulnerable, should the Asian war escalate further And further escalation was exactly what MacArthur was demanding The knife edge that Truman had been walking suddenly terminated above an abyss He couldnt go forward without risking a nuclear World WarIII He couldnt retreat without undermining the morale of all who looked to America for leadership of the forces resisting communism MacArthur had drastically narrowed the presidents options, and the general had the gall to complain that his hands were being tied Reporters had heard of MacArthurs complaints they knew they had a story They asked Truman for a response What measures would he authorize the general to employ to fend off the Chinese Truman didnt want to answer this question, not least because hehadnt decided Anyway, as a poker player he knew not to tip his hand But as a Democratic president harassed by Republicans for softness on communism, he judged he had to say something We will take whatever steps are necessary, he replied Will that include the atomic bomb a reporter asked That includes every weapon we have Does that mean that there is active consideration of the use of the atomic bomb There has always been active consideration of its use This was huge news Never had the president spoken so openly about using the bomb Another reporter wanted to be sure he had heard Truman correctly Did we understand you clearly that the use of the atomic bomb is under active consideration Always has been, Truman said curtly It is one of our weapons How would the decision on use be made The military commander in the field will have charge of the use of the weapons, as he always has This was even bigger news MacArthurs finger was on the nuclear trigger The reporters scrambled to file their stories The shock waves rolled around the world As the extent of the alarm echoed back to Washington, Trumans advisers urged him to let the White House issue a clarification Truman agreed, but grudgingly, for he prided himself on plain speaking The clarification stated that use of the atom bomb had been under consideration since the start of hostilities in Korea whenever the United States went to war, all weapons were considered As to who would make the basic, strategic decision to use the bomb, that would be the president Tactical choices about where and when the bomb would be used would be left to the military commander in the field The clarification didnt alleviate the alarm, for it didnt materially revise Trumans own words The president was considering the use of the bomb, and MacArthur would determine the time and place Truman cursed his bad luck, and he cursed MacArthur The last thing he wanted was to have to use atomic weapons He claimed not to have lost sleep over the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, but no one takes the deaths of a hundred thousand civilians lightly He hoped not to have to make such a decision again And this time the consequences would be far terrible World WarII had ended with atomic bombings World WarIII would begin with them But he couldnt back down The Chinese were watching The Russians were watching Americans were watching The world was watching Now Attlee was coming Truman hated being on the spot like this having to explain that he wasnt intending to start another world war, yet having to avoid seeming fearful or reluctant to oppose the communists And it was MacArthurs doing Truman couldnt decide whether the general was the damnedest fool in the army, which had its share of fools, or the canniest political operator he had ever tangled with Truman had to admit that MacArthur had outmaneuvered him, placing him on the brink of a broader war against China, when that was the last place he wanted to be.Douglas MacArthur, sitting calmly in his office on the top floor of the Dai Ichi Building in central Tokyo, wondered what all the fuss was about MacArthur disdained politicians as a class, whether prime ministers or presidents He believed politicians lacked the knowledge or nerve to make the decisions national safety required He had dealt with presidents for decades and not found one who didnt falter at the moment of truth or put partisan self interest ahead of the countrys interest This was why he had kept his distance from Washington His deliberate exile was in its sixteenth year he had resisted repeated requests from the White House to come home, and he would continue to resist them as long as he could His work was important than what consumed the office seekers He had guided the Philippines to independence he had defeated imperial Japan and was building a republican Japan For the last five months he had been holding the line against communism in Korea He was on the verge of doing much Since 1945 freedom had been in retreat communism had captured Eastern Europe and then China It had come close to engulfing all of Korea But there he had made a stand and subsequently sent the communists reeling His success was no thanks to Washington, where the president and his advisers had fretted and quavered until heDouglas MacArthurhad taken the responsibility upon himself and plunged ahead In short order he accomplished what no one elseno president, no generalhad accomplished during the Cold War, rolling back the redtide and reclaiming territory previously lost to communism And once he defied the fretters, who didnt want to upset the communists of China He again assumed responsibility and ordered his troops to the Korean border with China It was then that the Chinese entered the war, causing everyone in Washingtonand London and several other world capitals, apparentlyto run for cover MacArthur took the new development in stride He admitted that he hadnt expected such large numbers of Chinese to appear in Korea But what the politicians interpreted as a mauling he accounted the cost of springing the Chinese trap He had foiled the communists plan to annihilate his army he was retreating but stretching their supply lines and rendering them vulnerable to his airpower He now had the communists just where he wanted them All that was required was nerve in Washington He didnt expect it to appear unprompted Harry Truman was no less the political animal than Franklin Roosevelt, whom MacArthur had had to educate during World WarII Truman might be educated, too The general took encouragement from the presidents remarks about the atom bomb maybe he did see what was at stake in Korea Would he follow through Could he stand up to Attlee and the others who would beseech him to step back Time would tell Was it World WarIII Not yet But if a lifetime at arms had taught Douglas MacArthur anything, it was that an inordinate fear of war was the surest guarantor of war Hadnt the democracies learned anything from Hitler Appeasement of the fascists had caused World War II appeasement of the communists would cause World WarIII Only the brave deserved to live free MacArthur classed himself among the brave His country had agreed with his self assessment, having awarded him all the medals and ribbons it issued He had risen to the challenge of battle on numerous occasions in the past half century, and, at seventy, he was not too old to rise to the challenge again He was ready, indeed eager He had felt this same thrill of anticipation at the crucial moments of World WarII, when history had rested on his shoulders He had delivered then And if the politicians would get out of his way, he would deliver once . The General vs The Presidentis that rare military chronicle that becomes an instant page turning classic San Antonio Express News Fast paced, dramatic, and amply illustrates whyTrumans stock has been on the rise in recent decades Boston Globe A vivid accounting of an event that was, on the surface, a personality conflict between two strong minded figures and, at the bottom, a courageous act that solidified civilian authority over the military in wartime Dallas Morning News Brands spikes the shadowboxing between Truman and MacArthur with vivid dispatches from the battlefield that give his tale a get along kick TIME Ahighly readable take on the clash of two titanic figures in a period of hair trigger nuclear tensions History offers few antagonists with such dramatic contrasts, and Brands brings these two to life Los Angeles Times Two American heroes tested and tried at their most inspired hours An exciting, well written comparison study of two American leaders at loggerheads during the Korean War crisis Kirkus Reviews, starred review General Election Trump vs Clinton Full Debate Republican Sen Cindy Hyde Smith Democratic Candidate Mike Espy Clinton Johnson vs RealClearPolitics General Stein Presidential Process USAGov Learn about the Presidential election process, including Electoral College, caucuses and primaries, national conventions GM Stock Price Motors Co Quote stock price, quotes financial overviews from MarketWatch Deduction Induction Social Research Methods In logic, we often refer to two broad methods of reasoning as deductive inductive approaches Deductive works general World Military Spending Global Issues US world military spending budgets are very high, almost back Cold War levels Kenya Methodist University Home Kenya is a chartered Christian university, with main campus situated in Meru campuses at Nairobi Mombasa Implicit Association Test Project Implicit The audience book that fully explains IAT Noticias deportivas La ltima informacin en partidos, resultados de la Liga MX, Futbol internacional, Mundial Rusia y Seleccin Mexicana adems NFL relativity Wikipedia GR, also known theory or GTR geometric gravitation published by Albert EinsteinTraitor His Class Privileged Life Radical Traitor Presidency Franklin Delano Roosevelt H W Brands on FREE shipping qualifying offers Reagan From master storyteller New York Times bestselling Historian comes definitive biography visionary transformative president FASHION BRAND LICENSING AGENCY Brand licensing one most effective marketing tools which help our clients build long term profitable business Select fashion brands fit ONLINE SHOP Buzz Buzz Rickson s JELADO H Testimonials I have found your product exceptional every way We use it so many recipes It great seasoning grilled chicken, taco soup, baked fish, an Merkenlijst Italiaanse Racefietsen Merkenlijst Een lijst van meer dan racefietsmerken Van ACamera tot Zullo Met foto s, plaats herkomst bouwer webadressen Nordstrom List Search Nordstrom list Find all favorite designers, labels beauty Browse indexed alphabetically Piano Names List Concert Pitch Piano following partial some , piano brand names catalogued worldwide those no longer production after locating name, you may GALERIE WIJDEMEREN BREUKELEVEEN, kunstbemiddeling, Gratis onze collectie schilderijen Kunst een huiselijke sfeer Naast verkoop bemiddeling, kunt u bij ons ook terecht voor taxatie, inkoop Brands ManualShelf download user guides manuals The General vs. the President: MacArthur and Truman at the Brink of Nuclear War

    • Format Kindle
    • 1524703427
    • The General vs. the President: MacArthur and Truman at the Brink of Nuclear War
    • H W Brands
    • Anglais
    • 18 February 2016
    • 752 pages

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